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Different Types Of Outlines For Research Papers

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Seven Types of Outlines

Check out the infographics of the seven main types of outlines (thanks to nownovel.com) and think about how you might use them.

If you’re here, it’s probably because you want to learn a thing or two about pre-writing. Pre-writing is sometimes referred to as “outlining,” “planning,” “storyboarding,” or any number of other names. All of those things fall under the broad category of pre-writing. Things you do before you create a real “draft.”

Everyone has a different style when it comes to their writing process. The one main thing that determines which method you ultimately choose, is whether or not it works. What we’re going to do, is take a look at a few different methods, with the help of our friends at nownovel.com, and then take a couple of them out for a test-drive.

1. The Traditional Approach

This method involves dividing your story up into smaller parts, and creating mini-summaries for each part. This is great for longer stories, especially if you already have a good idea of where your story goes.

This method is ideal for getting all of your thoughts down, when an idea starts coming and you are worried that you’ll forget it.

There are many variations on this method--some people find that writing each chapter on a different page, or a new index card helps them stay organized; some writers find it beneficial to organize their mini-summaries with more structure, while others do not.





2. The Synopsis

This method is closer to a stream-of-consciousness approach (moving through the entire storyline at top-speed, trying to get all of the ideas out). The synopsis approach is a bit more refined than that, and focuses on creating a concise representation of your story that will help you, as the writer, remember the myriad details you ultimately want to include.

This method is especially useful for shorter stories. It can also be used to help plan further pre-writing techniques. A progression from a synopsis to a more detailed outline is common. (Some authors even complete that pattern in reverse, creating synopses as a later step to help promote their story.)

The trick to this method is to be aware of the most important elements of the story--not all stories will be driven by the same elements. Some stories depend on setting, characters, conflicts, mysteries, or other devices--some stories will hinge on different aspects or combinations of elements. If you haven't yet determined the driving forces behind your story you will figure them out by the time you finish a synopsis.



3. The Snowflake Method

This type of outline can be either highly organized and systematic, or messy and free-wheeling. The general idea is to start small, and expand out. This is great for when you come up with a specific idea for a story--a conflict, perhaps--and you want to explore the idea more. For some, this method is an active brain-storming exercise, in which the author is organizing and creating ideas at the same time.

The great part about this method is that in its more detailed format, it forces the writer to consider many different parts of the story.

The process generally starts with a one sentence summary of the story. Next, a full paragraph summary, and summaries for each character. (Each character should have a motivation or need of some kind; be faced with a conflict)

From here, continue to expand. Take a look at your one-paragraph synopsis. Does it need to be altered? Expand that summary so that each sentence is a paragraph. Eventually you will be expanding to individual scenes, and you’ll be ready to write a full draft!

4. The Three-Act Structure

This method of pre-writing is useful for organizing a story that hasn’t been fully developed yet. One of those stories where you know you have something, but you’re not completely sure what, yet.

This is another method that involves organizing and expanding at the same time. This method helps to make sure that your story has a dynamic plot-structure, and follows the basic three-act structure. Basically, you want to create a main conflict, with action that builds up to a climax, and ends with a resolution. This is a very simple description of a story-line, and can help writers to scaffold the ideas they have onto a concrete structure.

You may want to create more stringent guidelines for your outline--perhaps you want to include the plotlines of each character for each act, or maybe you decide to include a sub-conflict in each act. That depends on the writer, and, ultimately, the story.




5. The Hero's Journey

This method is somewhat more specialized than many of the others, and lends itself well to a certain type of story--namely, the Hero Story.

While this may seem restrictive, there are many stories that follow this basic format--and they don’t all end up sounding the same either!

The basic structure of this model is three parts. Part one, the hero receives some sort of call-to-action but refuses--“I’m not in that business anymore…” In part two, the hero finds motivation and undergoes a series of trials--training montage! In the third part, the hero triumphs over evil and returns to the life he or she used to lead--or something close to it.

This is a great model to expand from, if all you have so far is the basis for your hero story. And remember, a hero story doesn’t have to be a cliche!



6. The Freytag Model

This model is similar to the hero’s journey, and the three-act structure. It gives the writer some structure to guide their organization, but leaves the specifics up to the writer. If you want one section to be longer or shorter, that’s up to you. You can also skip over large sections with just a quick note, that will be expanded upon later. But the underlying goal is to make note of the over-arching sections of your story.

This model aims at creating an exposition or introduction (setting the stage); rising action, or development of conflict; climax (where the conflict comes to boiling-over point); falling action (the response to this conflict); and denouement (the resolution and tying up of loose ends).

With these sections accounted for, you have a pretty good idea of how your story is going to fit together, and you can add more details as you go.
Check out what Kurt Vonnegut has to say about the Shapes of Stories.



7. Draft Zero

Draft zero. The draft before the draft. This is the anti-outline, and some people find it liberating, creatively engaging, and hectic.

The point of this method is to just write. Ramble your story, and don’t worry about mistakes. They will be fixed later.

While using this method, feel free to use symbols, cross-outs, drawings, notes, and whatever other short-hand devices you might know. The point is to just get the story onto paper.

Some writers enjoy this method when they have been thinking about a story for a long time and know where it will go. Other writers use this method to try to fill in the blanks of their story on the fly.




But do real authors actually do this stuff? Do you really need to do all this planning if you’re a good writer?

Yes.

Just like us, depending on the writer, and the type of story, famous authors use all sorts of pre-writing methods. Many stories will go through a number of these pre-writing methods before developing into a full draft.

Some authors start relatively sparsely:















(Henry Miller's Tropic of Capricorn plan)














While others end up with rather complex outlines:











(Joseph Heller's plot chart for Catch-22)











And some stories require a bit of creativity to outline effectively:














(Jack Kerouac's outline for what would become The Town and the City)












One thing is constant--good writing comes in many stages. No one writes a good story on their first try.

(Thanks to flavorwire.com for the images!)

Check out some more hand-written outlines and diagrams from famous authors here and here.



References:
http://flavorwire.com/391173/famous-authors-handwritten-outlines-for-gre...
http://flavorwire.com/261120/charts-and-diagrams-drawn-by-famous-authors/10
http://www.nownovel.com/blog/7-ways-write-plot-outline/
http://www.nownovel.com/blog/write-a-plot-outline-infographic/

For the Wikipedia template named Outlines, see Template:Outlines

For the Wikipedia outline lists, see Wikipedia:Outlines

An outline, also called a hierarchical outline, is a list arranged to show hierarchical relationships and is a type of tree structure. An outline is used[1] to present the main points (in sentences) or topics (terms) of a given subject. Each item in an outline may be divided into additional sub-items. If an organizational level in an outline is to be sub-divided, it shall have at least two subcategories, as advised by major style manuals in current use.[2] An outline may be used as a drafting tool of a document, or as a summary of the content of a document or of the knowledge in an entire field. It is not to be confused with the general context of the term "outline", which a summary or overview of a subject, presented verbally or written in prose[3] (for example, The Outline of History is not an outline of the type presented below). The outlines described in this article are lists, and come in several varieties.

A sentence outline is a compositional tool for writing a document, such as an essay, a paper, a book, or even an encyclopedia. It is a list used to organize the facts or points to be covered, and their order of presentation, by section. Topic outlines list the subtopics of a subject, arranged in levels, and while they can be used to plan a composition, they are most often used as a summary, such as in the form of a table of contents or the topic list in a college course's syllabus.

Outlines are further differentiated by the index prefixing used, or lack thereof. Many outlines include a numerical or alphanumerical prefix preceding each entry in the outline, to provide a specific path for each item, to aid in referring to and discussing the entries listed. An alphanumerical outline uses alternating letters and numbers to identify entries. A decimal outline uses only numbers as prefixes. An outline without prefixes is called a "bare outline".

Specialized applications of outlines also exist. A reverse outline is a list of sentences or topics that is created from an existing work, as a revision tool; it may show the gaps in the document's coverage so that they may be filled, and may help in rearranging sentences or topics to improve the structure and flow of the work. An integrated outline is a composition tool for writing scholastic works, in which the sources, and the writer's notes from the sources, are integrated into the outline for ease of reference during the writing process.

A software program designed for processing outlines is called an outliner.

Types of outlines[edit]

Outlines are differentiated by style, the inclusion of prefixes, and specialized purpose. There are also hand-written outlines (which are highly limited in utility), and digitized outlines, such as those contained within an outliner (which are much more useful).

By style[edit]

There are two main styles of outline: sentence outlines and topic outlines.

Sentence outline[edit]

A sentence outline is a hierarchical outline composed of sentences. Its primary use is as a compositional tool for writing a document, such as an essay, a paper, a book, or even an encyclopedia. It is a list used to organize the facts or points to be covered, and their order of presentation, by section. It can also be used as a publishing format, in which the outline itself is the end product.

Topic outline[edit]

A topic outline is a hierarchical outline in which each entry is a subtopic of the subject of the outline. Items are arranged in levels, and may objects, names, values, categories, and so on. While topic outlines can be used to plan contents or draft a composition, they are typically intended for publishing and distribution. One application of topic outlines is the college course overview, provided by professors to their students, to describe the scope of the course. Another application is as a subject outline, such as for an encyclopedia.

A sample topic outline application: An outline of human knowledge[edit]

Propædia is the historical attempt of the Encyclopædia Britannica of presenting a hierarchical "Outline of Knowledge" in a separate volume in the 15th edition of 1974. The Outline of Knowledge was a project by Mortimer Adler. Propædia had three levels, 10 "Parts" at the top level, 41 "Divisions" at the middle level and 167 "Sections" at the bottom level, numbered, for example, "1. Matter and Energy", "1.1 Atoms", "1.1.1. Structure and Properties of Atoms".

By prefixing used[edit]

A feature included in many outlines is prefixing. Similar to section numbers, an outline prefix is a label (usually alphanumeric or numeric) placed at the beginning of an outline entry to assist in referring to it.

Bare outlines[edit]

Bare outlines include no prefixes.

Alphanumeric outline[edit]

An alphanumeric outline includes a prefix at the beginning of each topic as a reference aid. The prefix is in the form of Roman numerals for the top level, upper-case letters (in the alphabet of the language being used) for the next level, Arabic numerals for the next level, and then lowercase letters for the next level. For further levels, the order is started over again. Each numeral or letter is followed by a period, and each item is capitalized, as in the following sample:

Thesis statement: E-mail and internet monitoring, as currently practiced, is an invasion of employees' rights in the workplace.

I. The situation: Over 80% of today's companies monitor their employees.
A. To prevent fraudulent activities, theft, and other workplace related violations.
B. To more efficiently monitor employee productivity.
C. To prevent any legal liabilities due to harassing or offensive communications.
II. What are employees' privacy rights when it comes to electronic monitoring and surveillance in the workplace?
A. American employees have basically no legal protection from mean and snooping bosses.
1. There are no federal or State laws protecting employees.
2. Employees may assert privacy protection for their own personal effects.
B. Most managers believe that there is no right to privacy in the workplace.
1. Workplace communications should be about work; anything else is a misuse of company equipment and company time
2. Employers have a right to prevent misuse by monitoring employee communications

Some call the Roman numerals "A-heads" (for "A-level headings"), the upper-case letters, "B-heads", and so on. Some writers also prefer to insert a blank line between the A-heads and B-heads, while often keeping the B-heads and C-heads together.

If more levels of outline are needed, lower-case Roman numerals and numbers and lower-case letters, sometimes with single and double parenthesis can be used, although the exact order is not well defined, and usage varies widely.

The scheme recommended by the MLA Handbook,[4] and the Purdue Online Writing Lab,[5] among others, uses the usual five levels, as described above, then repeats the Arabic numerals and lower-case letter surrounded by parentheses (round brackets) – I. A. 1. a. i. (1) (a) – and does not specify any lower levels,[4][5] though "(i)" is usually next. In common practice, lower levels yet are usually Arabic numerals and lowercase letters again, and sometimes lower-case Roman again, with single parentheses – 1) a) i) – but usage varies. MLA style is sometimes incorrectly referred to as APA style,[6] but the APA Publication Manual does not address outline formatting at all.

A very different style recommended by The Chicago Manual of Style,[1][7] based on the practice of the United States Congress in drafting legislation, suggests the following sequence, from the top to the seventh level (the only ones specified): I. A. 1. a) (1) (a) i) – capital Roman numerals with a period, capital letters with a period, Arabic numerals with a period, italic lowercase letters with a single parenthesis, Arabic numerals with a double parenthesis, italic lowercase letters with a double parenthesis, and italic lowercase Roman numerals with a single parentheses, though the italics are not required). Because of its use in the US Code and other US law books, Many American lawyers consequently use this outline format.

Another alternative scheme repeats all five levels with a single parenthesis for the second five – I) A) 1) a) i) – and then again with a double parenthesis for the third five – (I) (A) (1) (a) (i).[citation needed]

Many oft-cited style guides besides the APA Publication Manual, including the AP Stylebook, the NYT Manual, Fowler, The Guardian Style Guide, and Strunk & White, are curiously silent on the topic.

One side effect of the use of both Roman numerals and uppercase letters in all of these styles of outlining is that in most alphabets, "I." may be an item at both the top (A-head) and second (B-head) levels. This is usually not problematic because lower level items are usually referred to hierarchically. For example, the third sub-sub-item of the fourth sub-item of the second item is item II. D. 3. So, the ninth sub-item (letter-I) of the first item (Roman-I) is item I. I., and only the top level one is item I.

Decimal outline[edit]

The decimal outline format has the advantage of showing how every item at every level relates to the whole, as shown in the following sample outline:

Thesis statement: ---

1.0 Introduction
1.1 Brief history of Liz Claiborne
1.2 Corporate environment
2.0 Career opportunities
2.1 Operations management
2.1.1 Traffic
2.1.2 International trade and corporate customs
2.1.3 Distribution
2.2 Product development

By specialized purpose[edit]

Special types of outlines include reverse outlines and integrated outlines.

Reverse outline[edit]

A reverse outline is an outline made from an existing work. Reverse outlining is like reverse engineering a document. The points or topics are extracted from the work, and are arranged in their order of presentation, by section, in the outline. Once completed, the outline can be filled in and rearranged as a plan for a new improved version of the document.

Integrated outline[edit]

An integrated outline is a helpful step in the process of organizing and writing a scholarly paper (literature review, research paper, thesis or dissertation). When completed the integrated outline contains the relevant scholarly sources (author's last name, publication year, page number if quote) for each section in the outline. An integrated outline is generally prepared after the scholar has collected, read and mastered the literature that will be used in the research paper. Shields and Rangarajan (2013) recommend that new scholars develop a system to do this. Part of the system should contain a systematic way to take notes on the scholarly sources.[8] These notes can then be tied to the paper through the integrated outline. This way the scholar reviews all of the literature before the writing begins.

An integrated outline can be a helpful tool for people with writer's block because the content of the paper is organized and identified prior to writing. The structure and content is combined and the author can write a small section at a time. The process is less overwhelming because it can be separated into manageable chunks. The first draft can be written using smaller blocks of time.[9]

Hand-written vs computerized[edit]

For a comparison, see Outliners, below.

Applications[edit]

Outlines are used for composition, summarization, and as a development and storage medium.

Composition[edit]

Merriam-Webster's manual for writers and editors (1998, p. 290) recommends that the section headings of an article should when read in isolation, combine to form an outline of the article content. Garson (2002) distinguishes a 'standard outline', presented as a regular table of contents from a refined tree-like 'hierarchical outline', stating that "such an outline might be appropriate, for instance, when the purpose is taxonomic (placing observed phenomena into an exhaustive set of categories). ... hierarchical outlines are rare in quantitative writing, and the researcher is well advised to stick to the standard outline unless there are compelling reasons not to."[10]

Writers of fiction and creative nonfiction, such as Jon Franklin,[11] may use outlines to establish plot sequence, character development and dramatic flow of a story, sometimes in conjunction with free writing.

Preparation of an outline is an intermediate step in the process of writing a scholarly research paper, literature review, thesis or dissertation. A special kind of outline (integrated outline) incorporates scholarly sources into the outline before the writing begins.[12]

Summarization[edit]

In addition to being used as a composition tool during the drafting process, outlines can also be used as a publishing format. Outlines can presented as work's table of contents, but they can also be used as the body of a work. The Outline of Knowledge from the 15th edition of the Encyclopedia Britannica is an example of this. Wikipedia includes outlines that summarize subjects (for example, see Outline of chess, Outline of Mars, and Outline of knowledge).

Professors often hand out to their students at the beginning of a term, a summary of the subjects to be covered throughout the course in the form of a topic outline. It may also be included as part of a larger course synopsis.

Outlines are also used to summarize talking points for a speech or lecture.

Personal information management[edit]

Outlines, especially those used within an outliner, can be used for planning, scheduling, and recording.

Outliners[edit]

Main article: Outliner

An outliner (or "outline processor") is a specialized type of word processor used to view, create, build, modify, and maintain outlines. It is a computer program, or part of one, used for displaying, organizing, and editing hierarchically arranged text in an outline's tree structure. Textual information is contained in discrete sections called "nodes", which are arranged according to their topic-subtopic (parent-child) relationships, sort of like the members of a family tree. When loaded into an outliner, an outline may be collapsed or expanded to display as few or as many levels as desired.

Outliners are used for storing and retrieving textual information, with terms, phrases, sentences, or paragraphs attached to a tree. So rather than being arranged by document, information is arranged by topic or content. An outline in an outliner may contain as many topics as desired. This eliminates the need to have separate documents, as outlines easily include other outlines just by adding to the tree.

The main difference between a hand-written outline and a digital one, is that the former is usually limited to a summary or blueprint of a planned document, while the latter may easily include all of the content of the entire document and many more. In other words, as a hand-written work an outline is a writing tool, but on a computer, it is a general purpose format supported by a robust development and display medium capable of handling knowledge from its creation to its end use.

Outliners may be used in content creation instead of general word processors for capturing, organizing, editing, and displaying knowledge or general textual information. Outliners are ideal for managing lists, organizing facts and ideas, and for writing computer programs. They are also used for goal and task management (including personal information management and project management), and for writing books and movie scripts.

The graphical counterpart to outliners are mind mappers.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ ab"Lists and Outlines (6.121–126)". Chicago Manual of Style (16th ed.). Chicago: U. of Chicago Press. 2010. 
  2. ^The following is certainly not an exhaustive list of relevant style guides:
    • Turabian, K. L (2003). A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations (7th ed.). Chicago: U. of Chicago Press. pp. 63–64.  
    • Gibaldi, J (2003). MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (6th ed.). New York: Modern Language Association of America. p. 53.  
    • Tardiff, Elyssa; Brizee, Allen (2010-01-08). "Four Main Components for Effective Outlines". Retrieved 2010-04-02.  
    • "How to Make an Outline"(PDF). Psychology Writing Center, U. of Washington. Archived from the original(PDF) on 2010-08-20. Retrieved 2010-04-02.  
    • "How to Write an Outline". Los Angeles City College Library Online. Archived from the original on 2010-03-30. Retrieved 2010-04-02.  
  3. ^OED: "outline n.3.a. In pl. The main features or general principles of a subject, proposal, etc. 3.b. A brief verbal or written description of something, giving a general idea of the whole but leaving details to be filled in; a draft, a summary. Also: a précis of a proposed article, novel, scenario, etc."
  4. ^ ab"1.8.3: Final Outline". MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (Seventh ed.). New York, NY: Modern Language Association of America. 2009. p. 45. ISBN 978-1-60329-024-1. 
  5. ^ ab"Developing an Outline". Purdue Online Writing Lab. Purdue University. 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-20. 
  6. ^For example: "APA Outline Format Examples". YourDictionary.com. 2011. Retrieved 20 October 2011. 
  7. ^"Lists and Outline Style (6.124–130)". Chicago Manual of Style (15th ed.). Chicago, IL: U. of Chicago Press. 2003. pp. 270–275. ISBN 0-226-10403-6. 
  8. ^Shields, Patricia and Rangarjan, N. 2013. A Playbook for Research Methods: Integrating Conceptual Frameworks and Project Management. [1]. Stillwater, OK: New Forums Press. See Chapter 8 for a detailed discussion of an integrated outline with examples.
  9. ^Shields, Patricia. 2014. Tools for Excellent Papers: 2014 ASPA Student Summit. Presentation at the American Society for Public Administration annual conference, Washington DC March 15, This powerpoint describes a system for writing paper that contains an integrated outline. Slides 37 - 46 examine the components of an integrated outline with an example.
  10. ^G. David Garson, Guide to writing empirical papers, theses, and dissertations. CRC Press, 2002, ISBN 978-0-8247-0605-0, chapter "Typical Outlines", pp. 23-34.
  11. ^Writing for Story, Penguin, 1994
  12. ^Shields, Patricia M. 2004.Step by Step: Building a Research Paper. Stillwater OK: New Forums Press. ISBN 1-58107-117-5

References[edit]

  • Mary Ellen Guffey, "Organizing and Writing Business Messages," Business Communication: Process and Product, p. 160-161.
  • "Numbers: Lists and Outlines," Manual for Writers and Editors (Merriam-Webster, Incorporated: 1998), p. 103.
  • White, Basil (1996) Developing Products and Their Rhetoric from a Single Hierarchical Model, 1996 Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Society for Technical Communication, 43, 223-224. [2]
  • "Report writing," Britannica Student Encyclopedia, Encyclopædia Britannica Online (Accessed January 5, 2006)
  • William E. Coles, Jr. "Outline," World Book Online (Accessed January 5, 2006)
  • Ted Goranson's About this Particular Outliner 'Outlining and Styles'
  • Jon Franklin "Writing for Story", Penguin 1994.