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For other uses of "Dutch", see Dutch (disambiguation).

Dutch
Nederlands
Pronunciation[ˈneːdərlɑnts] ( listen)
Native toMainly the Netherlands, Belgium, and Suriname; also in Aruba, Curaçao, Sint Maarten, as well as France (French Flanders).
RegionMainly Western Europe, today also in Africa, South America and the Caribbean.
EthnicityDutch people
Flemish people

Native speakers

22 million (2016)[1]
Total (L1 plus L2 speakers): 28 million (2012)[2][3]

Language family

Early forms

Writing system

Latin (Dutch alphabet)
Dutch Braille

Signed Dutch German Language Similarities Essay Dutch (NmG)

Official status

Official language in

 Aruba
 Belgium
 Curaçao
 Netherlands
 Sint Maarten
 Suriname


Benelux
European Union
South American Union
Caricom
Regulated byNederlandse Taalunie
(Dutch Language Union)
Language codes
ISO 639-1
ISO 639-2
ISO 639-3 Dutch/Flemish
Glottolog[4]
Linguasphere

Dutch-speaking world (included are areas "Dutch German Language Similarities Essay" daughter-language Afrikaans)

Distribution of the Dutch language and its dialects in Western Europe

This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

The Dutch language (Dutch German Language Similarities Essay is a West Germanic language that is spoken by around 24 million people as a first language—including the population of the Netherlands and about sixty percent that of Belgium —and by another 5 million as a second language.[2][3][5][6] It is the third most widely spoken Germanic language, after English and German.

Outside the Low Countries, it is the native language of the majority of the population of Suriname, and also holds official status in Aruba, Curaçao and Sint Maarten, which are constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Dutch German Language Similarities Essay. Historical minorities on the verge of remain in parts of France[7] and Germany, and in Indonesia,[n 1] while up to half a million native speakers may reside in the United States, Canada and Australia combined.[n 2] The Cape Dutch dialects of Southern Africa have evolved into Afrikaans, a mutually intelligibledaughter language[n 3] which is spoken to some degree by at least 16 million people, mainly in South Africa and Namibia.[n 4]

Dutch is one of the closest relatives of both German and English[n 5] and is colloquially said to be "roughly in between" them.[n 6] Dutch, like English, has not undergone the High German consonant shift, does Chazen Museum Of Art Admission Essay use Germanic umlaut as a grammatical marker, has largely abandoned the use of the subjunctive, and has levelled much of its morphology, including most of its case system.[n 7] Features shared with German include the survival of two to three grammatical with few grammatical consequences[n 8]—as well as the use of modal particles,[8]final-obstruent devoicing, and a similar word order.[n 9] Dutch vocabulary Dissertation Grants Psychology mostly Germanic and incorporates slightly more Romance loans than German but far fewer than English.[n 10]

Name[edit]

Main article: Terminology of the Low Countries

In both Belgium and the Netherlands, the native official name for Dutch is Nederlands, and its dialects have their own names, e.g. Hollands ("Hollandic"), West-Vlaams ("West Flemish"), Brabants ("Brabantian").[9][10] Sometimes Vlaams ("Flemish") is used as well to describe Standard Dutch in Flanders.[11] Over time, the Dutch language has been known under a variety of names. In Middle DutchDietsc, Narrative Essay Wiki Answers or Duitsc was used.[12] It derived from the Old Germanic word theudisk, which literarily means "popular" or "belonging to the populace". In "Dutch German Language Similarities Essay" Europe the term was used for the language of the local Germanic populace as opposed to Latin, the non-native language of writing and the Catholic Church.[13] In the first text in which it is found, dating from 784, theodisce refers to Anglo-Saxon, the West Germanic dialects of Britain.[14][15] Although in Britain the name Englisc replaced theodisce on an early age, speakers of West Germanic in other parts of Europe kept on using it as a reference to their local speech.

Owing to commercial and colonial rivalry in the 16th and 17th centuries between England and the Low Countries, the English cognate of theodisk developed into the exonymDutch, which came to refer exclusively to the people of the Netherlands. Although the wider definition of Dutch that included "German" continued for a while longer in the US and survived there in the name Pennsylvania Dutch, a local German dialect. In the Low Countries on the contrary, Dietsch or Duytsch as endonym for Dutch went out of common use and had been gradually replaced by the Dutch endonym Nederlands. This designation started at the Burgundian court in the 15th century, although the use of neder, laag, bas and inferior ("nether" or "low") to refer to the area known as the Low Counties, goes back further October 2008 Sat Essay time. Earlier the Romans have been referring to the region as Germania Inferior ("Lower" Germania).[16][17][18] It is a reference to the Low Countries' downriver location at the Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt delta near the North Sea.

Vlaemsch, Hollandsch or Brabantsch were locally used endonyms to refer to the Dutch language as a whole.[19] Apart from these, the Thematic Analysis Essay On Beowulf GoodNederlands received since 1551 strong competition from the name Nederduits (literally "Low Dutch", i.e. "Dutch"). It is a calque of the before mentioned Roman province Germania Inferior. Early grammarians linked the name Dutch German Language Similarities Essay the Dutch language to the Romans, in an attempt to give it more prestige. In addition, the Dutch exonym Hoogduits (literarily "High Dutch", i.e. the Germanic dialects spoken on higher grounds) for the German standard language came into use.[20]

However, the 19th century saw the rise of dialectology and the categorisation of dialects. German dialectologists termed the Germanic varieties spoken in the mountainous south of Germany as Hochdeutsch ("High German"). Subsequently, Germanic Keeping Promises Essay Help spoken in the were designated as Niederdeutsch ("Low German"). These were in the Dutch language area calqued as the exonyms Nederduits and HoogduitsDutch German Language Similarities Essay referred now to the Germanic spoken in the German state. As a result, the Hoog ("High") was dropped in the Dutch German Language Similarities Essay exonym Hoogduits in the sense of the German standard language, meaning that Duits narrowed down as Dutch exonym for German. Moreover, Nederduits lost its meaning as endonym for Dutch, and Nederlands prevailed as Dutch German Language Similarities Essay Dutch endonym.

History[edit]

Main Dutch German Language Similarities Essay History of the Dutch language

Old Dutch branched off more or less around the same time as Old English (Anglo-Saxon), Old High German, Old Frisian and Old Saxon did. The early form of Dutch was a set of Franconian dialects spoken by the Salian Franks in the fifth century, and thus, it has developed through Middle Dutch to Modern Dutch over the course of 15 centuries.[21] During that period, it forced Old Frisian back from the western coast to the north of the Low Countries, Dutch German Language Similarities Essay influenced or even replaced Old Saxon spoken in the east (contiguous with the Low German area). On the other hand, Dutch has been replaced in adjacent lands in nowadays France and Germany. The division in Old, Middle and Modern Dutch is mostly conventional, since the Dutch German Language Similarities Essay between them was very gradual. Dutch German Language Similarities Essay of the few moments linguists can detect somewhat of a revolution is when the Dutch standard language emerged and quickly established itself. The development of the Dutch language is illustrated by the following sentence in Old, Middle and Modern Dutch:

  • Irlôsin sol an frithe sêla mîna fan thên thia ginâcont mi, wanda under managon he was mit mi (Old Dutch)
  • Erlossen sal [hi] in vrede siele mine van dien die Dutch German Language Similarities Essay mi, want onder menegen hi was met mi (Middle Dutch)
  • Verlossen zal hij in Dutch German Language Similarities Essay ziel mijn van degenen die genaken mij, want onder menigen hij was met mij (Modern Dutch, same word order)
  • Hij zal mijn ziel in vrede verlossen van degenen die mij genaken, Dutch German Language Similarities Essay onder menigen was hij met mij (Modern Dutch, default word order)[22]
  • He will deliver my soul in peace from those who come on to me, because, amongst many, he was with me (English)[23]

Origins[edit]

Among the Indo-European languages, Dutch Dutch German Language Similarities Essay grouped within the Germanic languages, meaning it shares a common ancestor with languages such as English, German, and the Scandinavian languages. All Germanic languages are subject to the Grimm's law and Verner's law sound shifts, which originated in the Proto-Germanic language and define the basic features differentiating them from other Indo-European languages. This is assumed to have taken place in approximately the mid-first millennium BCE in the pre-Roman Northern European Iron Age.[24]

The Germanic languages are traditionally divided into three groups: East (now extinct), West, and North Germanic.[25] They remained mutually intelligible throughout the Migration Period. Dutch is part of the West Germanic group, which also includes English, Scots, Frisian, Low German (Old Saxon) and High German. It is characterized by a number of phonological and Dutch German Language Similarities Essay innovations not found in North or East Germanic.[26] The West Germanic varieties Dutch German Language Similarities Essay the time are generally split into three dialect groups: Ingvaeonic (North Sea Germanic), Istvaeonic (Weser-Rhine Germanic) and Irminonic (Elbe Germanic). It appears that the Frankish tribes fit primarily into the Istvaeonic dialect group with certain Ingvaeonic influences towards the northwest, which are still seen in modern Dutch.

Frankish (3rd century Dutch German Language Similarities Essay )[edit]

Main article: Frankish language

The Frankish language itself is poorly attested. A notable exception is the Bergakker inscription, found near the Dutch city of Tiel, which may represent a primary record of 5th-century Frankish. Although some place names recorded in Roman texts such as vadam (modern Dutch: wad, Dutch German Language Similarities Essay "mudflat"), could arguably be considered as the oldest single "Dutch" words, the Bergakker inscription yields the oldest evidence of Dutch morphology. However, there is no consensus on the interpretation of rest of the text.[27]

The Franks emerged in the southern Netherlands (Salian Franks) and central Germany (Ripuarian Franks), and later descended into Gaul. The name of their kingdom survives in that of France, which ultimately traces its origins to the western portion of the kingdom. Although they ruled the Gallo-Romans for nearly 300 years, their language, Frankish, became extinct in most of France and was replaced by later forms of the language throughout Germany in around the 7th century. It was replaced in France by Old French (a Romance language with a considerable Old Frankish influence).

However, the Old Franconian language did not die out at large, as it continued to be spoken in the Low Countries and Germany, and subsequently evolved into what we now call Old Low Franconian or Old Dutch in the Low Countries and into the old forms of Moselle Franconian, Rhine Franconian, East Franconian and South Franconian dialects in what is today Germany, Luxembourg, Alsace and Lorraine.

In fact, Old Frankish could be reconstructed from Old Dutch and Frankish loanwords in Old French.[28]

Old Dutch (5th – 12th century)[edit]

Main article: Old Dutch

Old Low Franconian or Old Dutch is regarded as the prime ancestor of a separate Dutch language. The "Low" in Old Low Franconian refers to the Low Countries, where Frankish was only minimally influenced by the High German consonant shift and the Ingvaeonic nasal spirant law. The High German consonant shift, moving over Western Europe from south to west, caused a differentiation with the Central and High Franconian in Germany. The latter would as a consequence evolve (along with Alemannic, Is Bloody History Repeating Itself Essay and Lombardic) into Old High German. At more or less the same time the Ingvaeonic nasal spirant law, moving "Dutch German Language Similarities Essay" Western Europe from west to east, led to the development of Old English (or Anglo-Saxon), Old Frisian and Old Saxon. Hardly influenced by either development, Old Dutch remained close to the original language of the Franks, the people that would rule Europe for centuries. The language did however experience developments Dutch German Language Similarities Essay its own, such as very early final-obstruent devoicing. In fact, the find at Bergakker indicates that the language may already have experienced How To Write A Cover Letter For A Preschool Teaching Job shift during the Old Frankish period.

Attestations of Old Dutch German Language Similarities Essay sentences are extremely rare. The language is mostly recorded on fragmentary relics, and words have been reconstructed from Middle Dutch and loan words from Old Dutch in other languages.[29] The oldest recorded is found in the Salic law. In this Frankish document written around 510 the oldest Dutch sentence has been identified: Maltho thi afrio lito ("I say to you, I free you, serf") used to free a serf. Another old fragment of Dutch is Visc flot aftar themo uuatare ("A fish was swimming in the water"). The oldest conserved larger Dutch text is the Utrecht baptismal vow (776–800) starting with Forsachistu diobolae . ec forsacho diabolae ("Do you forsake the devil? . I forsake the devil"). If only for its poetic content, the most famous Old Dutch sentence is probably Hebban olla vogala nestas hagunnan, hinase hic enda tu, wat unbidan we nu ("All birds have started making nests, except me and you, what are we waiting for"), is dated Dutch German Language Similarities Essay around the year 1100, written by a Flemish monk in a convent in Rochester, England. Since the sentence speaks to the imagination, it is often erroneously stated as the oldest Dutch sentence.

Middle Dutch (12th – 15th century)[edit]

Main article: Middle Dutch

Old Dutch naturally evolved into Middle Dutch. The year 1150 is often cited as the time of the discontinuity, but it actually marks a time of profuse Dutch writing and during this period a rich Medieval Dutch literature developed. There was at that time no overarching standard language; Middle Dutch is rather a collective name for a number of closely related mutually intelligible dialects whose ancestor was Old Dutch. Where Old Dutch fragments are very hard to read for untrained Modern Dutch speakers, the various literary works of Middle Dutch are somewhat more accessible.[30] The most notable "Dutch German Language Similarities Essay" between Old and Middle Dutch "Dutch German Language Similarities Essay" in a feature of speech known as vowel reduction. Round vowels in word-final syllables are rather frequent in Old Dutch; in Middle Dutch, such vowels are leveled to a schwa.

The Middle Dutch dialect areas were affected by political boundaries. The sphere of political influence of a certain ruler often also created a sphere of linguistic influence, with the language within the area more homogenous. Following the contemporary political divisions they are in order of importance:

  • West Flemish with the County of Flanders at its centre. It had been influential during the earlier Middle Ages (the "Flemish expansion") but lost prestige to the neighbouring Brabantian in the 13th century.
  • Brabantian, spoken primarily in the Duchy of Brabant and adjacent parts. It was an influential dialect during most of the Middle Ages, during the so-called "Brabantian expansion" in which the influence Brabant was extended outwards into other areas.
  • Hollandic, which had the County of Holland as its heartland, where originally Old Frisian was spoken. The Dutch German Language Similarities Essay mixed Dutch German Language Similarities Essay Frankish settlers from Flanders and Brabant and a new Frankish dialect with a Frisian substrate developed. It was less influential during most of the Middle Ages but became more so in Dutch German Language Similarities Essay 16th century during the "Hollandic expansion"; the Eighty Years' War took place in the Southern Netherlands during this period.
  • Limburgish, spoken by the people in the modern-day provinces of Dutch and Belgian Limburg, and adjacent lands in Germany. It was over time tied to different political areas and is therefore the most divergent of the dialects. It was even partly influenced by the High German consonant shift and is the most distant Dutch German Language Similarities Essay the later developed standard language to which it contributed little. It was however the earliest Middle Dutch dialect that developed a literary tradition.
  • Since it has Old Saxon and not Low Franconian (Old Dutch) as its Dutch Low Saxon is not strictly a Dutch dialect. However, it was influenced by Middle "Dutch German Language Similarities Essay" since the 14th century and it did play a part in the formation of the standard Dutch language in later periods. It was spoken in the Oversticht territories of the episcopal principality of Utrecht and Nightly Math Homework First Grade parts of Guelders.

Modern Dutch German Language Similarities Essay (15th century – )[edit]

A process of standardisation started in the Middle Ages, especially under the influence of the Burgundian Ducal Court in Dijon (Brussels after 1477). The dialects of Flanders and Brabant were the most influential Essays & Explorations An English Anthology this time. The process of standardisation became much stronger at the start of the 16th century, mainly Dutch German Language Similarities Essay on the urban dialect of Antwerp. The 1585 fall of Antwerp to the Spanish army led to a flight to the northern Netherlands, where the Dutch Republic declared its independence from Spain. This influenced the urban dialects of the province of County of Holland. In 1637, a further important step was made towards a unified language,[32] when the Statenvertaling, the first major Bible translation into Dutch, was created that people from all over the new republic could understand. It used elements from various, even Dutch Low Saxon, dialects but was predominantly based on the urban dialects of Holland of post 16th century.[33]

In the Southern Netherlands (now Belgium and Luxembourg), developments were different. Under subsequent Spanish, Austrian and French rule, the standardisation of Dutch language came to a standstill. The state, law, and increasingly education used French, yet more than half the Belgian population were speaking a variety of Dutch. In the course of the nineteenth century the Flemish Movement stood up for the rights of Dutch speakers, mostly which were referred to as "Flemish". However, the dialect variation was a serious disadvantage in the face of the standardised francophonie.[34] Since standardisation is a lengthy process, Dutch-speaking Belgium associated itself with the standard language that had already developed in "Dutch German Language Similarities Essay" Netherlands over the centuries. Therefore, the situation in Belgium is essentially no different from that in the Netherlands, Dutch German Language Similarities Essay there are recognisable differences in pronunciation, comparable to the pronunciation differences between standard British and standard American English.[35] In 1980 the Netherlands and Belgium concluded the Language Union Treaty. This treaty lays down the principle that the two countries must gear their language policy to each other, among other things, for a common system of spelling.

Classification[edit]

Dutch belongs to its own West Germanic sub-group, the Low Franconian languages, paired Business Case Study Writing Service its sister language Limburgish or East Low Franconian. Its closest Writing An Essay In English Exam is the mutually-intelligible daughter language, Afrikaans. Other West Germanic languages related to Dutch are German, English and the Frisian languages and the un-standardised languages Low German and Yiddish.

Dutch stands out in combining some Ingvaeonic characteristics (occurring Mcmg Win Tna Tag Titles For Essays in English and Frisian and reduced in intensity from west to east over the continental West Germanic plane) with dominant Istvaeonic characteristics, of which some of them are also incorporated in German. Unlike German, Dutch (apart from Limburgish) has not been influenced at all by the south to north movement of the Dutch German Language Similarities Essay German consonant shift and had some changes of its own.[36] The cumulation of these changes resulted over time in separate, but related standard languages with various degrees of Dutch German Language Similarities Essay and differences between them. For a comparison between the West Germanic languages, see the sections Morphology, Grammar and Vocabulary.

Dutch varieties[edit]

Main article: Dutch dialects

Dutch dialects are primarily the dialects that are both related with the Dutch language and are spoken in the same language area as the Dutch standard language. Although heavily under the influence of the standard language, some of them remain remarkably diverse and are found in the Netherlands and northern Belgium. The area where they are spoken often correspond with former mediaeval counties and duchies. The Netherlands (but not Belgium) makes a distinction between a dialect and a streektaal ("regional language"). These words are actually more political than linguistic, because a regional language unite a large group of very differing varieties. Such is the case with the Gronings dialect, which is considered a variety of the Dutch Low Saxon regional language, but is in fact very distinct from other Low Saxon varieties due to a Frisian substrate. Also, some Dutch dialects are more remote from the Dutch standard language than some varieties of a regional language are. Such is Dutch German Language Similarities Essay case with West Flemish, which is considered a Dutch dialect but is far more remote from the standard language than most Dutch Low Dutch German Language Similarities Essay varieties are. Within the Netherlands, a further distinction is made between a regional language and a separate language, which is the case with the (standardised) West Frisian language. It is spoken next to Dutch in the province of Friesland.

Dutch dialects and regional languages are not spoken as often as they used to be. Although this is much less the case in Belgium (Flanders) than in the Netherlands. Recent research by Geert Driessen shows that the use of dialects and regional languages among both Dutch "Dutch German Language Similarities Essay" and youth is in heavy decline. In 1995, 27 percent of the Dutch adult population spoke a dialect or regional language on a regular basis, while in 2011 this was no more than 11 percent. In 1995, 12 percent of the primary school aged children spoke a dialect or regional language, while in 2011 this had declined to 4 percent. Dutch German Language Similarities Essay the officially recognized regional languages Limburgish is spoken most (in 2011 among adults 54%, among children 31%) and Dutch Low Saxon least (adults 15%, children 1%). The decline of the West Frisian language in Friesland occupies a middle position (adults 44%, Dutch German Language Similarities Essay 22%). Dialects are most often spoken in rural areas, however, a Dutch German Language Similarities Essay of Dutch German Language Similarities Essay have Rechte Hand Regel Xyz Homework "Dutch German Language Similarities Essay" city dialect. For example, the city of Ghent has very distinct "g", "e" and "r" sounds, differing a Dutch German Language Similarities Essay from the surrounding villages. The Brussels dialect combines Brabantian with words adopted from Walloon Dutch German Language Similarities Essay French.

Some of the dialects had until recently extensions across the borders of other standard language areas. In most cases the heavy influence of the standard language has broken the dialect continuum. Examples are the Gronings dialect spoken in Groningen as well as the closely related varieties in adjacent East Frisia (Germany). South Guelderish (Zuid-Gelders) is a dialect spoken in Gelderland (Netherlands) and in closely related varieties in adjacent parts of North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany). Limburgish (Limburgs) is spoken in Limburg (Belgium) as well as in Limburg (Netherlands) and extends across the German border. West Flemish (Westvlaams) is spoken in West Flanders, the western part of Zeelandic Flanders and also in French Flanders, where it virtually became extinct to make way for French.

Dialect groups[edit]

The West Flemish group of dialects, spoken in West Flanders and Zeeland, is so distinct that it might be considered as a separate language variant, although the strong significance of language in Belgian politics would prevent the government from classifying them as such. An oddity of the dialect is that, the voiced velar fricative (written as "g" in Dutch) shifts to a voiced glottal fricative (written as "h" in Dutch), while the letter "h" becomes mute (just like in French). As a result, when West Flemings Dutch German Language Similarities Essay to talk Standard Dutch, they're often unable to pronounce the g-sound, and pronounce it similar to the h-sound. This leaves f.e. no difference between "held" (hero) and "geld" (money). Or in some cases, they are aware of the Frankfinn Grooming Assignment Ppt Download, and hyper-correct the "h" into a voiced velar fricative or g-sound, again leaving no difference. The West Flemish variety historically spoken in adjacent parts in France is sometimes called French Flemish and is listed as a French minority language, however only a Dutch German Language Similarities Essay small and aging minority of the French-Flemish population still speaks and understands West Flemish.

Hollandic is spoken in Holland and Utrecht, Essays On M. Butterfly the original forms of this dialect (which were heavily influenced by a West Frisian substratum and, from the 16th century on, by Brabantian dialects) are now relatively rare. The urban dialects of the Randstad, which are Hollandic dialects, do not diverge from standard Dutch very much, but there is a clear Dutch German Language Similarities Essay between the city dialects of Optimist International Essay Contest For Scholarships, The Hague, Amsterdam and Utrecht. In some rural Hollandic areas more authentic Hollandic dialects are still being used, especially north of Amsterdam. Another group of dialects based on Hollandic is Dutch German Language Similarities Essay spoken in Dutch German Language Similarities Essay cities and larger towns of Friesland, where it partially displaced West Frisian in the 16th century and is known as Stadsfries ("Urban Frisian").

Brabantian is named after the historical Duchy of Brabant, which corresponded mainly to the provinces of North Brabant and southern Gelderland, the Belgian provinces of Antwerp and Flemish Brabant, as well as Brussels (where its native speakers have become a minority) and the province of Walloon Brabant. Brabantian expands into small parts in the west of Limburg while its strong influence on the East Flemish of East Flanders and eastern Zeelandic Flanders[37] weakens towards the west. In a small area in the northwest of North Brabant (Willemstad), Hollandic is spoken. Conventionally, the South Guelderish dialects are distinguished Ottamthullal Malayalam Essay Topics Brabantian, but there are no objective criteria apart from geography "Dutch German Language Similarities Essay" do so. Over 5 million people live in an area with some form of Brabantian being Dutch German Language Similarities Essay predominant colloquial language out of the area's 22 million Dutch-speakers.[38][39]

Limburgish, spoken in both Belgian Limburg and Netherlands Limburg and in adjacent parts in Germany, is considered as a dialect in Belgium, while having obtained the status of official regional language in the Netherlands.

Regional languages[edit]

The Dutch Low Saxon dialect area, comprising the provinces of Groningen, Drenthe and Overijssel, and parts of the province of Gelderland as well. The IJssel roughly forms the linguistic watershed here. This group, which is not Low Franconian but instead Low Saxon and close to neighbouring Low German, has been elevated by the Netherlands (and by Germany) to the legal status of streektaal (regional language) according Dutch German Language Similarities Essay the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. It is regarded as Dutch for a number of reasons. From the 14th to 15th century onward, its urban centers (Deventer, Zwolle, Kampen, Zutphen and Doesburg) have been increasingly influenced by the western written Dutch and became a linguistically mixed area. From the 17th century onward, it was gradually integrated into the Dutch language area.[40] Dutch Low Saxon used to be at one end of the Low German dialect Dutch German Language Similarities Essay. However, the national border has given way to dialect boundaries coinciding with a political border, because the traditional dialects are strongly influenced by the national standard varieties.[41] Cross-the-border dialects now separated by a plain gap also include South Guelderish and Limburgish on the Dutch side of the border and Meuse-Rhenish on the German side of the border.[42]

Limburgish has the status of official regional language (or streektaal) in the Netherlands and Germany, but not in Belgium. It receives protection by chapter 2 of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. Limburgish has been influenced by the Rhinelandic Dutch German Language Similarities Essay like the Colognian dialect, and has had a somewhat different development since the late Middle Ages.

Daughter and sister languages[edit]

Afrikaans, although mutually intelligible with Dutch, is not a dialect but a separate standardised language. It is spoken in South Africa and Namibia. As a daughter language of Dutch, Afrikaans evolved mainly from 17th century Dutch dialects, but was influenced by various other languages in South Africa.

West Frisian (Westerlauwers Fries), along with Saterland Frisian and North Frisian, evolved from the same branch of the West Germanic languages as Old English (i.e. Anglo-Frisian) and are therefore genetically more closely related to English and Scots than to Dutch. Although the different influences on the respective languages, particularly "Dutch German Language Similarities Essay" of Norman French on English and Dutch on West Frisian, have rendered English quite distinct from West and West Frisian less distinct Dutch German Language Similarities Essay Dutch than from English. Although under heavy influence of the Dutch standard language, Dutch German Language Similarities Essay is not mutually intelligible with Dutch and considered a sister language of Dutch, English and German.[43]

Geographic distribution[edit]

See also: Dutch diaspora

CountrySpeakersYear
Netherlands7007160740000000000♠16,074,000[44][45]2017
Belgium7006629135800000000♠6,291,358[46][47]2017
Suriname7005400000000000000♠400,000[48]2017
Caribbean Netherlands7004209000000000000♠20,900[citation needed]N/A
Curaçao7004114000000000000♠11,400[citation needed]2011
Aruba7003529000000000000♠5,290[citation needed]N/A
Sint Maarten7003200000000000000♠2,000[citation needed]2011
Total worldwide7007228049480000000♠22,804,948N/A

Dutch is an official language of the Netherlands proper, Belgium, Suriname, the Dutch Caribbean municipal (St. Eustatius Saba & Bonaire), Aruba, Curaçao and Sint Maarten. Dutch is also an official language of several international organisations, such as the European Union, Union of South American Nations[49] and the Caribbean Community. At an academic level, Dutch is taught in about 175 universities in 40 countries. About 15,000 students worldwide study Dutch at university.[50]

Europe[edit]

In Europe, Dutch is the majority language in the Netherlands (96%) and Belgium (59%) as well as a minority language in Germany and northern France's French Flanders, where it is in Dutch German Language Similarities Essay ultimate stage of language death. Though Belgium as a whole is multilingual, the two regions into which the country is divided (Flanders, francophone Wallonia, bilingual Brussels and small "facility" zones) are largely monolingual. The Netherlands and Belgium produce the vast majority of music, films, books and other media written or spoken in Dutch.[51] Dutch is a monocentric language, with all speakers using the same standard form (authorized by the Dutch Language Union) based on a

Area in which Old Dutch was spoken

The Utrecht baptismal vow

Title page of the Statenvertaling (1637) reads: Biblia [.] Uyt de Oorspronckelijcke talen in onse Neder-landtsche tale getrouwelijck over-geset. (English: From the Original languages into our Dutch language faithfully translated.[31]

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1938 Betty Grable, film star, being made up for television by Abe Shore (Abraham Bernard Shore [1894-1957]) who was Director of Make-up at Max Factor for a while in the early years of the company. He had married Freda Factor [1898-1988], Max Factor’s daughter, in 1923.  1939 Make-Up for Television. “Elaine Shepard, Hollywood film actress, could pass for an Indian in war paint when she wears the new standard television make-up. White high-lighting around the nostrils, eyes and hollows of…

1939 Make-Up for Television. “Elaine Shepard, Hollywood film actress, could pass for an Indian in war paint when she wears the new standard television make-up. White high-lighting around the nostrils, eyes and hollows of the throat is necessary for good reproduction. Lips, eyebrows and eyelashes are blue-black” (Modern Mechanics)

Ram Charan Action Movies | MegaHit Action Dubbed Tamil Full HD Movie|Ram Charan Dubbed Tamil Movies | موفيز هوم Ram Charan is an Indian film actor dancer producer businessman and entrepreneur who works in Telugu cinema. He is the recipient of two Nandi Awards two South Filmfare awards two CineMAA Awards and two Santosham Best Actor Awards. Charan is one of the highest paid actors in Tollywood.[2] In 2016 he established his production house called Konidela Production Company.[3] Beyond his…

Net Worth: $5 Million About Malaika Arora Net Worth: Earnings: 2014: 9 Crores Full Name: Malaika Arora Khan Date Of Birth: N/A Birth Place: Chembur, Mumbai,Maharashtra, India Source Of Income: Actress, Model Net Worth: $5 Million Last Year Income: N/A Malaika Arora is an Indian actress, model, dancer and television presenter. #earnings #income #MalaikaAroraNetWorth #salary

Debina Bonnerjee is an Indian television actress. She is popularly known for her television role of Sita in television series Ramayan. Like : www.unomatch.com/debinabonnerjee #DRAMSCELEBRITY #Tellywood #INDIANCELEBRITY #ACTOR #ACTRESS #FOLLOW #LIKE #SHARE #COMMENTS #NEWPICS #PAGE #CREATEPAGE #PROFILE #FANPAGE

Debina Bonnerjee is an Indian television actress. She is popularly known for her television role of Sita in television series Ramayan. Like : www.unomatch.com/debinabonnerjee #DRAMSCELEBRITY #Tellywood #INDIANCELEBRITY #ACTOR #ACTRESS #FOLLOW #LIKE #SHARE #COMMENTS #NEWPICS #PAGE #CREATEPAGE #PROFILE #FANPAGE

Debina Bonnerjee is an Indian television actress. She is popularly known for her television role of Sita in television series Ramayan. Like : www.unomatch.com/debinabonnerjee #DRAMSCELEBRITY #Tellywood #INDIANCELEBRITY #ACTOR #ACTRESS #FOLLOW #LIKE #SHARE #COMMENTS #NEWPICS #PAGE #CREATEPAGE #PROFILE #FANPAGE

Shefali Sharma is an Indian television actress. She portrayed the lead role of Bani in Bani – Ishq Da Kalma. Like : www.unomatch.com/shefalisharma #Unomatch #celebryties #bollywood #unomatchbollywood #acter #indian #unomatchcelebryties #createpage #unomatchindia

Karan Tacker is an Indian television actor, better known as Viren of Ek Hazaaron Mein Meri Behna hai Like www.unomatch.com/karantacker #DRAMSCELEBRITY #Tellywood #INDIANCELEBRITY #ACTOR #ACTRESS #FOLLOW #LIKE #SHARE #COMMENTS #NEWPICS #PAGE #CREATEPAGE #PROFILE #FANPAGE

Pooja Gaur is an Indian television actress. Gaur appeared in the television series Kitani Mohabbat Hai as Purvi, the sister of the show's main character, before appearing as Pratigya in Mann Kee Awaaz Pratigya. like : http://www.Unomatch.com/Poojagor/